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Introduction:

Pistachio is one of the most important export products in the country which is second among non-oil exports and first among the agricultural products. 

The annual income of this valuable product for the country is between 400 to 500 million dollars and therefore it plays an important role in the country’s economy.

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As the most important producer and exporter of pistachio, Iran has the greatest genetic reserves of pistachio which is unrivaled in the world.

The existence of Sarakhs wild pistachio forests in the north eastern parts of the country (Khorasan and Golestan), lush forests of Pistacia atlantica.

in the majority of central, western and southern parts of the country, and the existence of more than 90 different phenotypes and genotypes of domestic pistachios, are all testaments to this fact.

In the past two decades, there was a significant increase in the harvest of this product which is generally due to the export of this valuable product.

and its higher income compared to other products, and also, the poor quality of soil and water in most desert areas has deprived the opportunity to plant other crops.

The relatively high resistance of the pistachio tree has caused this expansion to continue at a higher rate.

It is necessary to conduct proper research in order to understand and choose the best cultivar in terms of morphological and physiological properties.

The quantitative and qualitative properties and collect enough information about the water and soil conditions of the area before the construction of pistachio orchards.

Therefore, considering the variety of pistachio cultivars and the fact that each of them has certain traits and characteristics.

the best and proper cultivar or cultivars that have the highest economic yield should be base on the existing conditions.

Currently, there are many orchards that experience heavy damage due to the lack of suitable environmental conditions.

Lack of knowledge of morphological and physiological characteristics of cultivars and lack of proper selection according to existing conditions.

spring cold, hail, snow, extreme summer heat and rainfall, early autumn frosts and not paying enough attention to the chilling requirements.

In this journal, we have tried to examine the morphological, phenological characteristics and the quantitative and qualitative properties of the product and other characteristics (resistance to salinity, drought, pests and diseases, etc.) of each of the commercial and non-commercial cultivars (30 cultivars).

This information is the result of research done by the author and other colleagues. by reading this journal, it will be possible to use it practically in the form of using appropriate cultivars in different environmental conditions in order to maximize productivity according to the costs. 

Understanding the characteristics of different cultivars, especially non-commercial cultivars, makes it possible to use their desirable traits in breeding programs.

That in the future we can see the production and introduction of commercial cultivars with desirable characteristics such as resistance to pests, diseases, salinity, drought, cold, and so on.

Akbari, Super Long

History:

One of the commercial cultivars of pistachio which has high economical value.  This cultivar is also known as Abdollahi, and the local farmer discovered in Fakhr Abad Khashkooyeh village in Rafsanjan.

Morphological properties:

The fruit almond-shaped, elongated and coarse.  Features of this cultivar include spray clustering, high yield.

Uniformity of crop ripening, high and strong growth, density and high leaf area. Due to its high vegetative growth, this cultivar is suitable for areas with severe sun, hot summers and sunburn.

Phenological properties:

It is slow terms of flowering, and flowers grow from April 20 to 31. The leaves of this cultivar, like other late-flowering cultivars, grow before the flowers and in this cultivar it is about 4 to 5 days earlier.

The growth of the nut of this cultivar starts from 10 to 20 of July and lasts until the end of August, which is about 39 to 45 days.

This cultivar can harvests in late September and is one of the late cultivars in terms of ripening.

Quantitative and qualitative characteristics:

The average dry yield of 12- to 16-year-old trees in Rafsanjan conditions is 1311 grams per tree, the number of seeds per ounce is 21 to 22 seeds, the amount of pistachio openings is 12 to 13 percent and blank fruits (fruits without nut) is 3.11%.

From every 100 grams of dried fruit (nut with shell) 55 to 54 grams of nut. The protein content of the nut is 6.19% and its fat content is 2.53%. In terms of biennial bearing, it is average.

It should be noted that ounce traits, percentage of open fruits and percentage of blank fruits, as well as the percentage of protein and fat in the nut, can change under the influence of garden management (irrigation, nutrition, pest control and pollination) and to some extent, environmental conditions.

The fat and protein percentage can also be variable by the timing of harvest, and delays in harvest increase the fat percentage and reduce the protein percentage in the nut.

Special features:

Due to late flowering, it is usually damaged by spring cold, but during flowering, it is faced with a lack of pollen and the end of flowering of male trees and it is possible that a large percentage of inoculated flowers shed or become blank fruits (Parthenocarpy).

In order to solve this problem, late-flowering male cultivars are used or transplanting male cultivars on a seedbed or between Akbari rootstocks is useful and effective as well. 

To solve the problem of existing gardens and orchards, artificial pollination of this cultivar for 1 to 2 times in the whole flower stage.  Also, due to the late-flowering of this cultivar, if there is early heat in late April, the flowers and even damage to the newly fruits.

Kalleh Ghochi, Jumbo

History:

This is one of the major commercial cultivars which was first discovered and chosen in Dehno village in Rafsanjan by a man called Haj Ali Sharifi and for this reason, it is also known as the Haj Sharifi. 

Its main areas of development are Kerman province and it is available in other provinces of the country.

Morphological properties:

The large size of the fruit and its good yield have made it famous and widespread.

The fruits are hazelnut-shaped, larger, and have a higher percentage of half-cracked fruits than Ohadi. Trees have stronger, thicker branches than Ohadi trees.

This cultivar is more sensitive to lack of water and nutrients, and in such cases, it suffers from sunburn and dryness of the branches. The growth power of the tree is medium and has a broad crown and simple, compound leaves, most of which are compound 5-leaflet leaves and the terminal leaflet is larger than the lateral leaflets.

Phenological properties:

In terms of flowering, it is an early-flowering variety and its flowering in Rafsanjan conditions lasts from 7 to 21 of April. The leaves of this cultivar begin to grow about 2 to 3 days after flowering and usually lasts until the end of April.

Due to early flowering, it is more at risk of spring frost damage, and in cold areas with a history of spring frosts, the damage is done to this cultivar (albeit to a limited extent) each year.

Rapid nut growth begins on July 10 to 20 and is completed by the end of August, which is about 39 to 45 days. This cultivar can be harvested in the second decade of September and in this regard, it is one of the cultivars with average ripening speed.

The fruit starts to ripen at the tip and the soft skin turns gray-red when ripe.

Quantitative and qualitative characteristics:

The average dry yield of 12- to 16-year-old trees in Rafsanjan conditions is 2222 grams per tree, the number of seeds per ounce is 24 to 25 seeds.

From every 100 grams of dried fruit (nut with boney shell) 55 grams of nut is obtained.

The protein content of the nut is 2.20 % and its fat content is 4.49 %. In terms of biennial bearing, it is average and lower than Ahmad Aghaii, Ohadi and Akbari.

It should be noted that ounce traits, percentage of open fruits and percentage of blank fruits, as well as the percentage of protein and fat in the nut, can change under the influence of garden management (irrigation, nutrition, pest control and pollination) and to some extent, environmental conditions.

The fat and protein percentage can also base on the timing of harvest, and delays in harvest increase the fat percentage and reduce the protein percentage in the nut.

Special features:

In order to obtain a suitable, sufficient and high-quality product, implant operations (irrigation, fertilization, pest and disease control) must be done well, otherwise, a large percentage of the product will be blank and with half-nuts or half-crack.

This cultivar naturally has a terminal dominance and the ability to produce more lateral branches than the single is higher than Ohadi. Seedlings of this cultivar are resistant to toxicity.

Ahmad-Aghaii, Long

History:

This cultivar was first discovered and selected by someone named Ahmad Agha Froutan in Ahmadieh Nogh.  The spread of this cultivar in Kerman province is mostly in Nogh areas of Rafsanjan and Sirjan city.

At present, this cultivar is one of the most important and best commercial pistachio cultivars in the country, which, despite its not so long history, is significantly expanding.

Morphological properties:

The fruit is almond-shaped but the appearance is similar to the Kaleh Ghouchi cultivar.

The tree growth is medium, the crown is wide and the leaves are simple and complex and the majority of the complex leaves have three leaflets.  The redness of the nut, the whiteness of the shell and the large size of the fruit have caused its expansion.

Phenological properties:

 In terms of flowering its medium and in Rafsanjan conditions, the flowering will occur from 13 to 25 of April. The leaves of this cultivar begin to grow about 2 to 3 days before flowering.

Rapid nut growth begins on July 10 to 20 and is completed by the end of August, which is about 39 to 45 days.

This cultivar can be harvested in the third decade of September and in this regard, it is one of the cultivars with slow ripening speed.  It is vulnerable to shedding during ripening and will get separated from the tail of the fruit and shed due to wind and bird attacks.

Mixing the product which has fallen with the healthy product will increase the chance of fungal infections.

Quantitative and qualitative characteristics:

The average dry yield of 12- to 16-year-old trees in Rafsanjan conditions is 3066 grams per tree, the number of seeds per ounce is 24 to 26 seeds, the amount of openings is 6 to 7 percent and the amount of blank fruits is 7 to 8 percent.

From every 100 grams of dried fruit, 56 to 57 grams of nut is obtained.

The protein content of the nut is 15 to 16% and its fat content is 58 to 59%. Despite the very desirable features of this cultivar, it is relatively extreme In terms of biennial bearing, which will cause the amount of harvest to vary each year.

This problem can be controlled through proper management (especially in terms of pruning).

ounce traits, percentage of open fruits and percentage of blank fruits, as well as the percentage of protein and fat in the nut, can change under the influence of garden management (irrigation, nutrition, pest control and pollination) and to some extent, environmental conditions.

The fat and protein percentage can also base on the timing of harvest, and delays in harvest increase the fat percentage and reduce the protein percentage in the nut.

Ohadi

History:

One of the most common commercial cultivars of pistachio which was discovered and selected between 1320 to 1330 in the Fath Abad village of Rafsanjan by Mahdi Ohadi. 

It is a very famous and suitable cultivar for planting in most regions where pistachio is cultivated and has expanded greatly over the past 50 years. 

About 60 to 70 percent of Rafsanjan’s pistachio cultivation belongs to this cultivar. 

The clusters form in sprays and are scattered all over the tree. Due to the length of the main axis of the cluster, harvesting by hand (non-mechanized harvesting) is easy.

Morphological properties:

The fruit is hazelnut-shaped and round The tree growth is medium and has a wide crown and the leaves are simple (very few) and complex and the majority of the complex leaves have three leaflets and the terminal leaflets are larger than the lateral leaflets. 

The skin is green and has a medium texture which will turn dark purple when ripe.

Phenological properties:

 In terms of flowering its medium and in Rafsanjan conditions, the flowering will occur from 15 to 26 of April. The leaves of this cultivar begin to grow about 2 days before flowering and will continue until April 27. Rapid nut growth begins on July 10 to 20 and is completed by the end of August, which is about 39 to 45 days.

This cultivar can be harvested in the first decade of September and in this regard, it is one of the cultivars with fast ripening speed. 

The fruit will begin to ripen from the tip and the ripe fruit has a dark purple color. The fruit is vulnerable during ripening and birds and ants can deal a lot of damage to this product.

Quantitative and qualitative characteristics:

The average dry yield of 12- to 16-year-old trees in Rafsanjan conditions is 1745 grams per tree, the number of seeds per ounce is 28 to 29 seeds, the amount of openings is 28 to 29 percent and the amount of blank fruits is 21 to 22 percent.

From every 100 grams of dried fruit, 56 to 57 grams of nut is obtained.

The protein content of the nut is 3.20% and its fat content is 9.52%. It is average In terms of biennial bearing.

It should be noted that ounce traits, percentage of open fruits and percentage of blank fruits, as well as the percentage of protein and fat in the nut, can change under the influence of garden management (irrigation, nutrition, pest control and pollination) and to some extent, environmental conditions.

The fat and protein percentage can also base on the timing of harvest, and delays in harvest increase the fat percentage and reduce the protein percentage in the nut.

Other features:

Has an extreme terminal dominance.

Therefore, the formation of sub-branches will be limited and the growth of the terminal bud will increase and as a result, the distance between the tip of the branch and the center of the tree will increase. In regions where the thermal need of the cultivar during the growth season is not satisfied, the color of the soft outer shell will not change and will remain green but it can be separated from the shell.

This cultivar is one of the cultivars which has the highest amount of green shell cracks.

Fandoghi-Riz

History:

According to the studies, Mr Rouhani in 1362 among the trees of the pistachio research center of Naserieh.

this name was due to the fact that the fruit is tiny and looks like a hazlenut.

Morphological properties:

The fruit is hazelnut-shaped and tiny.

The tree growth is high and has a wide crown and the leaves are simple and complex and the majority of them are complex leaves with three leaflets.

Phenological properties:

 In terms of flowering its medium and in Rafsanjan conditions, the flowering will occur from 16 to 29 of April. The leaves of this cultivar begin to grow from 17 to 31 of April.

Rapid nut growth begins on July 21 to 31 and is completed by 21st of August.

This cultivar can be harvested in the third decade of September and in this regard, it is one of the cultivars with slow ripening speed. 

Quantitative and qualitative characteristics:

The average dry yield of 12- to 16-year-old trees in Rafsanjan conditions is 4054 grams per tree, the number of seeds per ounce is 27 seeds, the amount of openings is 36 percent and the amount of blank fruits is 9 to 10 percent.

From every 100 grams of dried fruit, 52 to 54 grams of nut is obtained.

The protein content of the nut is 9.17% and its fat content is 54%. It is average in terms of biennial bearing and its biennial bearing is lower than other commercial cultivars.

It should be noted that ounce traits, percentage of open fruits and percentage of blank fruits, as well as the percentage of protein and fat in the nut, can change under the influence of garden management (irrigation, nutrition, pest control and pollination) and to some extent, environmental conditions.

The fat and protein percentage can also variable base on the timing of harvest, and delays in harvest increase the fat percentage and reduce the protein percentage in the nut.

Other features:

The green fruit has an attractive color and the shell has a decent appearance.

The yield of this cultivar in laboratory conditions was the highest among the cultivars studied, and also the average biennial bearing is one of the advantages of this cultivar.

Fandoghi – 48

History:

Sheibani and Rouhani discovered the cultivar and reproduced the variety during research from 1358 to 1360 among seed trees in the pistachio research center of Naserieh.

Morphological properties:

The fruit is hazelnut-shaped and large with extremely suitable visibility.

The tree growth is average and has a wide crown and the leaves are simple and complex and the majority of them are complex leaves with five leaflets. The leaflets are tube-shape.

Phenological properties:

 In terms of flowering its medium and in Rafsanjan conditions, the flowering will occur from 14 to 25 of April. The leaves of this cultivar begin to grow before flowering and from 10 to 28 of April.

Rapid nut growth begins on July 10 to 20 completed by the end of August.

This cultivar can be harvested in the first decade of October and in this regard, it is one of the cultivars with extremely slow ripening speed. 

Quantitative and qualitative characteristics:

The average dry yield of 12- to 16-year-old trees in Rafsanjan conditions is 2093 grams per tree, the number of seeds per ounce is 19 to 20 seeds, the amount of openings is 25 to 26 percent and the amount of blank fruits is 4 to 5 percent.

From every 100 grams of dried fruit, 55 to 56 grams of nut is obtained.

The protein content of the nut is 1.17% and its fat content is 4.51%. The biennial bearing is low.

It should be noted that ounce traits, percentage of open fruits and percentage of blank fruits, as well as the percentage of protein and fat in the nut, can change under the influence of garden management (irrigation, nutrition, pest control and pollination) and to some extent, environmental conditions.

The fat and protein percentage can also is variable by the timing of harvest, and delays in harvest increase the fat percentage and reduce the protein percentage in the nut.

Other features:

Due to the largeness of the fruit, which is unique compare to other cultivars.

it is very attractive and it is currently being considered by gardeners and expanding.

Italiaii

History:

Mr. Agah’s gardens and delivered to the pistachio research center and reproduced.

Morphological properties:

The tree growth is high and has a wide crown and the leaves are simple and complex, with three, four and five leaflets but the majority of them have five leaflets.

The fruit is almond-shape, dagger-like and the color of the shell is a beautiful mixture of green, red and brown. 

The color is attractive and suitable for fresh eating. The shell has a dull color and cannot compete with other commercial cultivars.

 Phenological properties:

 In terms of flowering its very fast and in Rafsanjan conditions, the flowering will occur from 7 to 19 of April. The leaves of this cultivar begin to grow from 13 to 26 of April.

Rapid nut growth begins from June 28 to July 9 and is completed by the end of July.

This cultivar can be harvested in the middle of August and in this regard, it is one of the cultivars with extremely fast ripening speed. 

Quantitative and qualitative characteristics:

The average dry yield of 12- to 16-year-old trees in Rafsanjan conditions is 2594 grams per tree, the number of seeds per ounce is 28 to 29 seeds, the amount of openings is 13 to 14 percent and the amount of blank fruits is 9 to 10 percent.

From every 100 grams of dried fruit, 54 to 55 grams of nut is available.

The protein content of the nut is 9.20% and its fat content is 6.57%. The biennial bearing is very low.

It should be noted that ounce traits, percentage of open fruits and percentage of blank fruits, as well as the percentage of protein and fat in the nut, can change under the influence of garden management (irrigation, nutrition, pest control and pollination) and to some extent, environmental conditions.

The fat and protein percentage can also be affected by the timing of harvest, and delays in harvest increase the fat percentage and reduce the protein percentage in the nut.

Other features:

The fruit has a long and wide cluster and the tail of the cluster is thick.

Badami-Zarand

History:

This cultivar is tiny and almond-shaped and originated from the old gardens of Zarand town in Kerman.

Morphological properties:

The tree is tall, has a high growth power and has a wide crown and all of the leaves are complex, with three leaflets and it does not have simple and complex leaves with four leaflets. The terminal leaflets are larger than the lateral leaflets. The clusters are very dense and have many primary and secondary branches.

Phenological properties:

 In terms of flowering its average and the flowering will occur from 16 to 27 of April. The leaves of this cultivar begin to grow after flowering and from 17 to 31 of April. Rapid nut growth begins from 10 to 20 of July and is completed until 7 to 21 of August. This cultivar can be harvested by the end of September and in this regard, it is one of the cultivars with slow ripening speed. The ripening starts from the tip of the fruit and the ripe fruit has a bright red color.

Quantitative and qualitative characteristics:

The average dry yield of 12- to 16-year-old trees in Rafsanjan conditions is 2050 grams per tree, the number of seeds per ounce is 35 to 36 seeds, the amount of openings is 12 to 13 percent and the amount of blank fruits is 31 to 32 percent.

From every 100 grams of dried fruit, 56 to 57 grams of nut is obtained. The protein content of the nut is 8.15% and its fat content is 7.58%. The biennial bearing is average.

It should be noted that ounce traits, percentage of open fruits and percentage of blank fruits, as well as the percentage of protein and fat in the nut, can change under the influence of garden management (irrigation, nutrition, pest control and pollination) and to some extent, environmental conditions. The fat and protein percentage can also be affected by the timing of harvest, and delays in harvest increase the fat percentage and reduce the protein percentage in the nut.

Other features:

This cultivar is more resistant to Phytophthora fungi and the roots are less attacked. The seedlings of the almond cultivars are vulnerable to toxicity. In case of water shortage, it is recommended to use Zarand and fern almond bases. According to the above characteristics, this is the best and most common cultivar for producing seedlings as a base for commercial cultivars of pistachio.

Momtaz

This cultivar was discovered and reproduced by a man named Mohamad Khandani in Tajabad village in Rafsanjan.

Morphological properties:

The tree has a low growth power and has a wide crown and all of the leaves are complex and the majority have three leaflets. The fruit of this cultivar is almond-shaped, the clusters are spray and high in number and the newly inoculated fruits have high shedding rates.

Phenological properties:

 In terms of flowering its fast and the flowering will occur from 8 to 20 of April. The leaves of this cultivar begin to grow from 9 to 26 of April. Rapid nut growth begins from 10 to 20 of July and is completed until 7 to 21 of August. This cultivar can be harvested in the third decade of September and in this regard, it is one of the cultivars with slow ripening speed.

Quantitative and qualitative characteristics:

The average dry yield of 12- to 16-year-old trees in Rafsanjan conditions is 559 grams per tree, the number of seeds per ounce is 23 to 24 seeds, the amount of openings is 11 to 12 percent and the amount of blank fruits is 12 to 13 percent.

From every 100 grams of dried fruit, 57 to 58 grams of nut is obtained. The protein content of the nut is 4.19% and its fat content is 1.53%. The biennial bearing is average.

It should be noted that ounce traits, percentage of open fruits and percentage of blank fruits, as well as the percentage of protein and fat in the nut, can change under the influence of garden management (irrigation, nutrition, pest control and pollination) and to some extent, environmental conditions. The fat and protein percentage can also be affected by the timing of harvest, and delays in harvest increase the fat percentage and reduce the protein percentage in the nut.

Other features:

The nut of this fruit is tastier than other commercial cultivars.

Badami-Ravar

History:

This cultivar is almond-shaped and long which is cultivated in a large area of Ravar city gardens.

Morphological properties:

The tree has an average growth power and has a semi-vertical crown the leaves are simple and complex and the majority of complex leaves have three leaflets. The terminal leaflets are larger than the lateral leaflets. Complete clustering and large seeds are among the significant characteristics of this cultivar.

Phenological properties:

 In terms of flowering its average and the flowering will occur from 14 to 26 of April. The leaves of this cultivar begin to grow 4 to 5 days before flowering and it will end one day after the end of flowering. This cultivar can be harvested by the end of September and in this regard, it is one of the cultivars with slow ripening speed. The ripening starts from the tip of the fruit and the ripe fruit has a dark red color.

Quantitative and qualitative characteristics:

The average dry yield of 12- to 16-year-old trees in Rafsanjan conditions is 2557 grams per tree, the number of seeds per ounce is 24 to 25 seeds, the amount of openings is 28 to 29 percent and the amount of blank fruits is 23 to 24 percent.

From every 100 grams of dried fruit, 55 to 56 grams of nut is obtained. The protein content of the nut is 6.16% and its fat content is 1.55%. The biennial bearing is average. The fruit of this is very large compared to other almond cultivars.

It should be noted that ounce traits, percentage of open fruits and percentage of blank fruits, as well as the percentage of protein and fat in the nut, can change under the influence of garden management (irrigation, nutrition, pest control and pollination) and to some extent, environmental conditions. The fat and protein percentage can also be affected by the timing of harvest, and delays in harvest increase the fat percentage and reduce the protein percentage in the nut.