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Iranian pistachios (History, Production, Export, Cultivation and Branding)


Iranian pistachios In developing country like Iran, the role and importance of agriculture in the process of economic development is important from various dimensions, especially since the potential facilities in this sector have enabled the agricultural sector to play its fundamental role in socioeconomic development in various ways.

Among them, we can mention major roles such as providing foreign exchange through the export of agricultural products, expanding the agricultural products industry, creating employment and preventing the migration of villagers to cities. 

Regional development is one of the most common methods of development. 

Which is done with the aim of relying on the resources of each region. 

Accurate knowledge of potential and actual regional facilities and proper use of them will help the region and the country to achieve development goals (Sharifi Kia, 1995). 

The vast plateau of Iran is one of the natural centers for the growth of horticultural plants.

Despite the antiquity of horticultural plants in Iran, today we have benefited less from the advances in horticultural methods in the world. 

As a result, Iran, with its diverse and suitable climatic conditions, has not been able to achieve an economically worthy position among the countries producing strategic and garden plants. 

Despite the history of growing pistachio trees in Iran, we have not yet benefited much from the new science in the processing industries of this plant.

The significant jump in the yield of most crops and orchards in the second half of the twentieth century has been observed in the case of pistachio in the country. 

Such a situation increases the economic competitiveness of pistachio plants with crops and other horticultural products of other regions, so scientific attitude in addition to production and research on this plant is inevitable. Attention to conversion industries is also necessary.

Due to the size of the country and having unsuitable soils and unsuitable conditions, the pistachio plant can, according to studies conducted in the water and soil of many areas that are not suitable for other agricultural products.

In general, due to the special conditions of the country such as lack of rainfall and general water shortage, heat and decrease in relative humidity in summer, salinity of water and salinity or alkalinity of soils that prevent the expansion of cultivation of many common plants commercially, pistachio As an important economic product, it can occupy a special place among agricultural products and have a large share in the country’s agricultural economy. 

In order to provide income for millions of rural households throughout the country, on the other hand, if we use conversion industries and turn it into necessary products, its value can be multiplied.

At present, pistachio plant has a special place in the country with about 460,000 hectares under cultivation, and its impact on the economy will be more significant. 

Also, the study of changes in the area under cultivation and production of this recent crop shows the growing trend of this crop.

History and importance of pistachios

Pistachios have existed in Iran for a long time. 

Extensive pistachio forests existed in ancient Khorasan (a region located between Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan) to consider these areas as the main origin of pistachios

Pistachios were brought to Rome from Iran in the first century AD by one of the Roman emperors named Wei Le Lewis. 

Then, by Claudius Pompey, its planting became popular in Spain (Shirani Bidabadi, 2015). 

The history of pistachio cultivation in Kerman province dates back to at least four to five centuries ago and the existence of four hundred year old pistachio trees in Rafsanjan confirms this. In the last half century, the area under pistachio cultivation has developed in the country.

Currently, among horticultural products, pistachio has the highest area under cultivation and Kerman province with an area under cultivation of 280,000 hectares has the highest area under cultivation and the highest production of pistachios in Iran and the world

Among non-oil exports, its export value is second only to carpets.

pistachio kernel
pistachio kernel

Major pistachio growing regions in the world


In Asia, in addition to Iran, pistachio trees are common in Syria, Turkey, Jordan, Cyprus, Lebanon and Palestine. 

Iran, Syria, Turkey, Jordan, Cyprus, Lebanon and Palestine.

Asian pistachio producers base on region

Europe, Australia and Africa

There are pistachio orchards in continental Europe, Italy and Greece, and efforts were made about 30 years ago to establish pistachio orchards in Australia. There are pistachio orchards on the African continent in Tunisia and MoroccoSyria is the oldest country after Iran where pistachio tree cultivation.

Italy and Greece and Australia

overseas and European countries which produce pistachio


Pistachio is one of the most successful plants imported to America in the twentieth century. 

Pistachio, native to West Asia Minor, is a place where large wild habitats are still found in the hot and dry conditions of Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Iran, Iraq, India and southern Europe, and the desert countries of Asia and Africa. Pistachios arrived in Europe early in history. The first introduction of pistachios to the United States by the USDA (Plant Identification Service) was in 1890. In 1904, he first arrived in California at the Plant Introduction Station in Chihuahua, California, north of Sacramento Valley (Sedaghati et al., 2009).

Pistachio is one of the agricultural products that its production has a long history in Iran and has long been known as the most delicious types of nuts and with the passage of time and the introduction of this valuable product, its export is gradually being introduced as a trade and Over time, its exports have increased.

The economic and commercial importance of pistachios, known as green gold, which is one of the export items of our country in terms of value and is not hidden from anyone. This importance is significant in two ways

  1. As a source of non-oil exports to attract foreign exchange
  2. Due to the limited pistachio production areas in the world, competition is less than other products (Kor et al. [1] , 1990)

The growing interest of the global exchange market in these years in the Iranian pistachio production shows the effort to better understand this product and the effort to evaluate it in the history of trade and agriculture throughout the field of Iranian culture. 

Undoubtedly, Iran, especially in its eastern regions, has been an ancient source of mountain and domestic pistachios.

It has been published in other places, such as the coasts of Asia and the Mediterranean, making it necessary to conduct a series of researches on this product as a kind of commitment for the field of Iranian research (Shirani Bidabadi, 2015).

The rich income of one hectare of pistachio orchard has become a good incentive to pay attention to this agricultural sector and attract capital. 

It seems that the efforts of Iranian farmers and gardeners in the field of exporting agricultural products are influenced by the advice of one of the constitutional poets named “Sabzevari Officer” (Khoshgoftar Manesh, 2004)

Almonds and pistachios are not the oysters that came from the dark soil

Almond and pistachio cultivation

Botany of pistachios

Pistachio with the scientific name of Pistacia vera belongs to the sumac family (Anacardiaceae). Pistachio is a perennial, dicotyledonous and diploid plant (30-2x2n), this family consists of 75 genera and 600 species. 

This plant in the form of a tree, has two-stemmed flowers, without petals, small and complex in simple and compound clusters. 

Cluster inflorescences and male flowers have a five-part bowl and five flags with short rods and large anthers. The female flowers have 3 or 4 parts and the ovary has a house and a short three-branched cream. 

Pollination is done by wind. 

The pistachio fruit of the single-seeded shaft has a core with a wooden inside.

The root of the pistachio tree is axial and vertical and penetrates more than two meters into the soil. 

The height of pistachio tree in some cultivars such as Badami cultivar reaches more than 10 meters (Khatam Saz, 1997). 

The leaves are comb-shaped and depending on the variety, there are 3 to 7 leaflets. 

The seedling period in pistachios is long and the economic fruiting of the tree starts from the age of ten. 

pistachio crops after how many years?

Botanical classification

Pistachio classification is as follows:

  • Series: Plants Kingdom: Plantae
  • Category: Phylum: Angiosperms
  • Category: Dicotyledons-Eudicots
  • Unranked: Rosids
  • Order: Sapindales
  • Family: Sumac Anacardiaceae

Pistachio in Iran has four species

  1. Pistacia vera L.
  2. Pistacia atlantic Desf
  3. Pistacia mutuca F.M.
  4. Pistacia khinjuk stoncks

Types of pistachios

In general, pistachio types are divided into two groups:

  1. Round
  2. Long

Which is known as Koleghoochi, Hazelnut and Akbari

but traditionally in Iran there are about 90 species of pistachios

local iranian pistachio varieties

Some of them are widely and commercially cultivated and some of them are scattered and limited.

Types of product figures

The most important pistachio cultivars in Iran are:

The provinces of Kerman, Yazd, Khorasan, Semnan, Qom, Fars and Isfahan, and Sistan and Baluchestan and Markazi are considered as pistachio-growing provinces. 

The cities of Rafsanjan, Zarand, and Sirjan are among the pistachio-growing areas in Kerman province.

pistachio-growing areas in Kerman province

The most important cultivars of Iranian pistachio are:

  1. Akbari pistachio
  2. Koleghoochi pistachio
  3. Ahmad Aghaei pistachio
  4. Hazelnut or fandoghi
  5. Ouhadi pistachio

Figure Akbari

Akbari pistachio is one of the commercial cultivars of Iranian pistachio which has the highest economic value. 


This figure is also known as Abdullahi pistachio and has been identified and selected in Fakhrabad village of Kashkuieh, Rafsanjan. This cultivar has almond-shaped, elongated and large fruit.

This cultivar has almond-shaped, elongated and large fruit.

charectrastics of Akbari pistachio

Koleghoochi pistachio

This cultivar is one of the commercial cultivars of Iranian pistachio, which was first identified and selected by a person named Haj Ali Sharifi in Dehno village of Rafsanjan, and for this reason it is also known as Haj Sharifi pistachio

The main areas of its development are Kerman province and it is scattered in other provinces of the country.

Ahmad Aghaei figure

Ahmad Aghaei pistachio, this cultivar was first identified and selected by a person named Ahmad Agha Forootan in Ahmadiyya Nogh. 

The spread of this figure in Kerman province is more in Rafsanjan and Sirjan city. 

At present, this figure is one of the most important commercial figures in the country, which, despite its not so long history, is expanding significantly. 

Its fruit is almond-shaped, but its appearance is similar to that of Koleghoochi cultivar. Redness of the brain color, whiteness of the bony skin and large fruit have caused it to spread.

One hazelnut cultivar

Ouhadi pistachio is one of the most common commercial cultivars of Iranian pistachio that was identified and selected by Mehdi Ouhadi between 1320 and 1330 in Fatahabad village of Rafsanjan. 

round pistachio

It is a very famous and compatible cultivar for most pistachio growing areas that has expanded a lot during the last 50 years. 

This figure is about 70-60% of Rafsanjan pistachios. 

This cultivar has hazelnut-shaped and spherical fruits.

Climatic position of pistachio growing areas

Pistachio growing areas are located in a scattered distance of 29 to 40 degrees on the belt of the earth.

 Cultivation of pistachio trees in Iran has been done in latitude of 27-22 degrees north. 

Most pistachio trees are located at an altitude of 2000-900 meters above sea level. 

Pistachio tree is able to withstand temperatures of 45 ° C in summer and temperatures of -20 ° C in winter. 

To have the maximum yield, the maximum relative humidity must be less than 35% (Abrishami, 1373).

In Iran, most of the lands under pistachio cultivation are located on the edge of the desert and one of the main problems of these lands is soil salinity and irrigation water (Talebi, 2008).

One of the ways to deal with salinity is to use plants resistant to salinity such as pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) which is a subtropical plant of the family Anacardiacae and genus Pistacia (Alipour and Hosseinifard, 2003).

Wild pistachios

Wild pistachio with the scientific name (Pistacia atlantica) belongs to the family of sumac and pistachio genus, which has species of Chatlanqush [2] and Khanjuk [3] . 

The fruit is formed in late April and has a light and soft green skin that is easy to use. 

The growing areas of wild pistachio in Iran:

  • Urmia in Azerbaijan
  • Kurdistan
  • Kermanshah
  • Ilam
  • Lorestan
  • Khuzestan
  • Fars
  • Kerman

This plant also grows in the southern slopes of Alborz and Khorasan province (Shirani Bidabadi 1394).

The primary origin of pistachio is regional between Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan and this plant has been widely cultivated in several provinces of the country, but among these, Kerman province has the highest area under pistachio cultivation in Iran (Shirani Bidabadi. 2015) .

Pistachio is the second largest non-oil export after carpet and more than several billion dollars of foreign exchange is imported annually through the export of this product (Statistics of the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture, 2008).

Pistachio is one of the agricultural products that is mixed with the name of Iran and its production has a historical history in the country and has been cultivated and exploited in different parts of Iran for a long time. 

Wild forests and pistachio trees in northeastern Iran and bordering Turkmenistan and Afghanistan have a historical background, and it is thought that the pistachio tree was domesticated and cultivated in Iran about 3-4 thousand years ago. Is (Panahi et al., 2001).

Iran has been the world’s largest producer of pistachios for centuries without a competitor, but now other countries are competing with Iran in the field of pistachio production and trade. 

For example, Turkey, whose history of pistachio production and trade is not very old and in the last century has been among the customers of Iranian pistachios and in recent years has increased its production and has become a competitor for Iranian pistachios. 

The development of California pistachio orchards in the United States has also made the United States a strong competitor to Iranian pistachios. 

The United States is the second largest producer and exporter of pistachios in the world after Iran.

Today, perhaps more than half of the world’s pistachios belong to Iran, and the rest is mostly produced by the United States, Turkey, Syria, Italy and Greece.

Syria pistachio

70% of Iran’s pistachios are exported and the rest is consumed domestically. 

An examination of the trend of Iranian pistachio exports shows that the amount of exports has been increasing since 1984 and by 1999 the value and amount of pistachio exports compared to 1363 has increased almost 10 times.

Between 1996 and 1997, the average export of this product in Iran has grown by about 67.9% annually, but in recent years, the growth rate has been declining. 

Meanwhile, Iran still has 55% of the world production share and 88% of the global market, 74% of the European consumer market and more than 60% of the Far East market.

At present, over 470,000 hectares of fertile and infertile pistachio orchards are under cultivation in Iran, of which about 70% are located in Kerman province (Statistics and Information Technology Office, 2007). However, due to the presence of calcareous soils and saline and poor quality irrigation water in pistachio growing areas, many nutritional problems have arisen that have reduced pistachio production in these conditions (Shirani Bidabadi. 1394).

Pistachio export

 A study of world imports and exports of pistachios in the first ten months of 2009 shows a limited decline in total world pistachio exports. 

During this period, Iran’s exports to Europe amounted to about 30,445 tons, which is a decrease of 9% compared to the same period last year, which is due to lower exports to Germany and France (Mehrabi Bashabadi, 2008).


Figure 2-1 Exports of Iran, the United States and all countries (2000-2008) (tons)

In general, pistachio exports to Germany and France in this period compared to the same period last year decreased by 22 and 44 percent, respectively. 

However, there has been no significant change in the volume of pistachio exports to Italy, and in the case of Spain and Greece, exports have increased. 

Throughout the period, Iranian pistachio exports to Spain increased by about 18% and exports to Greece by about 180%.

During this period, European pistachio imports from the United States increased by about 50% compared to the first ten months of 2008. 

This further includes a 34% increase in pistachio exports to Germany, a 45% increase in pistachio exports to Belgium, a 68% increase in pistachio exports to France and a 36% increase in pistachio exports to Italy. 

During this period, the total import of European pistachios from Turkey decreased from 3,000 tons in the first ten months of 2008 to less than 887 tons (Mehrabi Bashabadi, 2008).

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Area under pistachio cultivation

The area under cultivation of fertile pistachio trees in 2016 was 359 thousand hectares and non-fertile 97 thousand hectares, which includes the highest percentage of total fertile area in the world, and the United States is in second place with 250 thousand hectares.

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Production rate and performance

In average it is estimated about 4% annual growth of pistachio production in the world, it is expected that the world pistachio production in 2020 will reach more than 700,000 tons.

Therefore, due to the increase in pistachio production in the coming years, it is necessary to plan carefully for the consumption and export of this product from now on (Azizi and Yazdani, 2006).

Production and yield of pistachios

In 2010, the world production of pistachios was 428 thousand tons, which is mainly related to Iran, the United States and Turkey.

The share of Iran, USA, Turkey and other countries in world pistachio production is 46.7%, 32%, 11.7% and 9.6%, respectively.

The growth of pistachio production in the world has a rate of 4%.

Pistachio production process and pistachio economy

Iran and the United States of America are the two main countries in the field of pistachio production and export in the world.

So that about seventy to eighty percent of the annual production of pistachios has been in the possession of these two countries.

70% of pistachio is produce by Iran and the USA

In 1929, the American botanist William E. Whitehouse spent only six months on the farms of Iranian pistachio orchards, collecting seeds and freezing them en masse to find production for distinctive pistachios.

He returned to the United States by returning a 20-pound (9 kg) bag of seeds.
More than 90% of American pistachios are produced in the state of California.

California pistachio regions geographical map

Iran, Rafsanjan city has the highest production.

Pistachio production in Iran has a history of several thousand years.

Pistachio cultivation history in the United States of America since beginning in 1929-1930 and after Iranian revolution in 1979 till now 2020-2021

But pistachio cultivation in the United States began in the 1930s with the planting of Iranian pistachio seeds.

After the US embassy hostage crisis in Tehran in November 1979 and the imposition of US and allied sanctions on Iran, industrial pistachio growing in the United States flourished.

During the years of international sanctions against Iran, American pistachios replaced Iranian pistachios.

But with the nuclear deal and a wave of hot, dry air across the west coast of the United States in 2014 that lost half of the country’s pistachio crop, Iranian pistachios found new life to enter international markets.

Companies that are currently active in this field will be a serious competitor for Iranian pistachio companies in the future.

Israel has the highest per capita consumption of pistachios.

The highest pistachio consumption per capita

Pistachio exports in the world

Iran has the first place in the world pistachio export market among pistachio exporting countries, so that until 1979, it was considered a new market.

From 1979 to 1982, Iran’s share of pistachio exports fell from 81% to 44%, mainly due to the imposed war and trade sanctions on Iran.
On the other hand, in 1982, the United States gained 15% of the world’s pistachio export share, ranking third after Turkey, and from this year onwards, it has established itself as one of Iran’s main competitors in pistachio exports.
Since 1983, other competitors such as the United States, Germany, Turkey, and late China have been active in the pistachio export market, with Germany often ranking third in the world after pistachio re-exports after Iran and the United States.

Germany is usually ranked third in pistachio re-export after Iran and the USA

Pistachio re-export base on country (Germany is the third one)

China’s share of the world pistachio market has been significant since 1998, mostly through Hong Kong, China, like Germany, re-exports, accounting for 4.9% of world pistachio exports since 1988. Self-assigned.
Since 1983, Iran’s export share has increased from 44% in 1982 to 74% in 1990, which can be attributed to the decline in oil prices in recent years and more attention to non-oil exports and the start of the first development program The agricultural sector noted.

Iran’s share of exports decreased from 66% in 1996 to 44% in 1997 due to the observation of aflatoxin in Iranian pistachios to the European Union, and since this year, Iran’s export market has declined. In contrast, the United States, China and Germany gained a large share of the export market.

Iran’s share of exports decreased from 66% in 1996 to 44% in 1997 due to the observation of aflatoxin

Aflatoxin observation in 1997

Pistachio export problems began in September 1997 with the ban on the import of this product by the European Union due to aflatoxin contamination.

But the initial short-term ban was lifted four months later following a European delegation’s visit to the Iranian pistachio state.

However, some Iranian officials at the time cited the EU decision only because of political pressure.

The volume of pistachio production in Iran during the years after the victory of the revolution has not had a definite trend.

The volume of pistachio production in Iran during the years after the victory of the revolution has not had a definite trend, for example, the production of 303 thousand tons of pistachios in 2000 suddenly decreased to 112 thousand tons in 2001 and again in 2002 increased to 249 thousand tons. According to this report, another example of a sharp fluctuation in Iran’s pistachio production dates back to 1996, when the production of 260,000 tons of pistachios in this year suddenly decreased to 111,000 tons in 1997, and again in 1998, it increased by 200 percent. It has reached 313 thousand tons.

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The FAO report states: “While Iran’s pistachio production was 69,000 tons in 1978 (the year of the victory of the Islamic Revolution), it decreased to about 20,000 tons two years later, but again in 1981 it reached 122,000 tons. It dropped to 96,000 tons again in 1982.

Iran pistachio Production after the revolution FAO

The highest record of pistachio production in the world belongs to the US by 3 tons per hectare

Among the major pistachio producing countries in 1997, the United States had the highest yield with an average production of 3085 kg and is 351% higher than the global yield.

Turkey is in second place after the United States. China, Syria and Greece are next in line, respectively, with higher-than-global performance.

In 1997, the yield per hectare of Iranian pistachios was 453 kg and compared to the world average of 52%.

Iran pistachio yield per hectare in 1997 i compare of other producers

The United States became the second largest exporter of pistachios in the world in 2014, exporting about 138,000 tons of pistachios.

Turkey was the third largest exporter of pistachios in the world. In 2014, Turkey was able to export about 3,000 tons of pistachios and ranked third in the world in terms of pistachio exports.

Iran’s pistachio exports in 2010 were equivalent to 150,000 tons. One of the advantages of Iran in pistachio exports is its geographical location. With easy transportation, Iran can easily capture the market from countries like China.
About 10% of the country’s pistachio production is domestic consumption and the other 90% is export. Annual consumption of pistachios for each Iranian family is about 2 kg. The production and export of Iranian pistachios generates about $ 1.4 billion to $ 1.7 billion annually for Iran. Kerman province, Rafsanjan city, Zarand city, Kashkuyeh city, Sirjan city, Anar city, and are the main centers of pistachio production in Iran and 80% of pistachios produced in Iran are obtained from these areas. Buin Zahra city in Qazvin province also has a significant share of Iranian pistachios.
Although Iranian and American pistachios are of the same breed, Iranian pistachios taste better. This is confirmed by many major European distributors. (Seeds and seedlings of the first pistachios planted in the United States were Iranian pistachios that changed their taste due to soil and climate change.) For example, Turkish pistachio is of another breed.

Pistachio problems

While in the mid-1980s, Iranian pistachio production was more than 250,000 tons, this amount has decreased to 100,000 tons in the early 1990s. Consecutive droughts (the biggest current problem in pistachio production) and lack of planning to supply water to pistachio orchards, as well as cumbersome export laws and regulations, have caused Iran’s pistachio exports to decline significantly in recent years.

Over time, as pistachio production increases in the US state of California, the country is becoming the world’s first exporter of this product.

Competitive problems USA vs Iran

The United States produces pistachios mechanized, and this has led to the country producing 3 tons per hectare and three times as much as Iran per hectare. 

In 2014, Iran’s pistachio exports to European countries had decreased from 90,000 tons per year to 10,000 tons. 

Another problem for exporters is the overuse of pesticides in pistachio orchards, which jeopardizes Iran’s small share of European pistachios in European markets. The European Union has strict rules in this regard, and if this market is lost, the US pistachio will soon take over the Iranian market in Europe.

Pistachio production in the world

Between 2009 and 2014, Iran, the United States, Turkey, Syria and the European Union were the top five pistachio producers in the world.

Table 2-2 – Pistachio production in thousand tons April (2016)

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A product or product (English: product) means “something produced by manpower or effort” or “the result of an action or a process.” 

The concept of processing agricultural products

Transformation industries in agriculture are important because issues related to food, agriculture and related industries have always been raised in economic circles. 

Considering the suitable conditions and the four climatic seasons of the country, it can be said that fortunately, we are in a very high category in terms of agricultural production.

But a very important point that is raised in this is that at least 30 to 40 percent of agricultural products, have become waste and cause great damage to farmers and ultimately major damage to the country’s economic structure.

Definition of conversion industries

 Agricultural conversion and complementary industries are industries that increase the economic value of these products by performing various works on crops, horticulture, livestock, poultry, fisheries, forests and pastures. 

In fact, in this industry, all kinds of agricultural and livestock products are converted into different and consumable materials, and a valuable relationship will be established between agriculture and industry.

Beneficial effects of conversion industries

 The main problem of farmers in different regions is permanent and seasonal unemployment, loss of crops in a certain period of time, as well as incomplete communication with other economic sectors. 

The conversion industry has both the power to solve these problems and the ability to create newer jobs. In fact, conversion industries will create added value, create jobs, increase foreign exchange earnings, increase the use of agricultural products and prevent the loss of products.

One way to reduce waste is to increase added value, increase the quality of packaged agricultural products and related industries.

Maintenance method

The best way to store nuts is to keep them in the freezer to prevent aflatoxin from growing on the surface of the seeds and kernels. 

Consumption of this fungus is carcinogenic. 

Of course, it prevents corruption in large quantities by placing pills in warehouses (Prevention of aflatoxin in pistachios FAO)

Pistachio kernels

The pistachio kernel, which is the edible part of the pistachio, is sweet with a pleasant green taste with a delicate pale brown skin that does not need to be removed before eating. 

The brown coating of the brain contains antioxidants that protect the oil-rich grain from atmospheric oxygen and heat.

Qualitative properties

36 grams of pistachios (about 55 seeds) provide more than 16% of the daily requirement of fiber, B vitamins, thiamine, magnesium, phosphorus and copper. Pistachios contain a lot of plant sterols (approximately 06 mg per 36 g), which reduces heart disease and cancer.

In addition, pistachios are an excellent source of unsaturated fatty acids, which are beneficial fats and help increase levels of high-density of protein and good cholesterol without increasing low-density of bad cholesterol.

fiber, B vitamins, thiamine, magnesium, phosphorus and copper

pistachio nutrients

Nutritional value of pistachios

Today’s science has proven the superiority of pistachios in many ways over many nutritious and nutritious foods, including caviar, shrimp, red and white meat, and so on.

Table 2-3 – Materials and elements in 100 grams of pistachio kernels

Total lipid (fat)47.44g
Carbohydrate, by difference27.43g
Fiber, total dietary10g
Sugars, total including NLEA7.51g
Calcium, Ca104mg
Iron, Fe3.91mg
Magnesium, Mg106mg
Phosphorus, P455mg
Potassium, K977mg
Sodium, Na6mg
Zinc, Zn2.27mg
Copper, Cu1.254mg
Selenium, Se9.7µg
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid2.9mg
Vitamin B-61.088mg
Folate, total49µg
Folic acid0µg
Folate, food49µg
Folate, DFE49µg
Choline, total69.3mg
Vitamin B-120µg
Vitamin B-12, added0µg
Vitamin A, RAE13µg
Carotene, beta154µg
Carotene, alpha0µg
Cryptoxanthin, beta0µg
Lutein + zeaxanthin1125µg
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)2.46mg
Vitamin E, added0mg
Vitamin D (D2 + D3)0µg
Vitamin K (phylloquinone)16.3µg
Fatty acids, total saturated5.886g
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated25.054g
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated14.181g
20:5 n-3 (EPA)0g
22:5 n-3 (DPA)0g
22:6 n-3 (DHA)0g
Alcohol, ethyl0g

Used organs and medicinal compounds

The main organ used in the pistachio plant is its fruit.

Medicinal and therapeutic properties of pistachios

Pistachio is used as a plant food and invigorating and curing many diseases. 

Pistachio tree was first found in Turkey and Iran. 

At that time, pistachios were the food of the nobility. 

In later years, it was used only at celebrations and parties. 

Later it was eaten in a variety of desserts, sweets, ice cream and even as an appetizer. 

smiling nuts

This seed was known as “smiling nuts” because of its shape.

pistachios-smiling nuts
smiling nuts

Pistachio kernels have a warm nature and are nutritious and fattening seeds with many nutritional properties. 

Pistachio has a very high nutritional and medicinal value

This valuable fruit is rich in potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron and B vitamins and plays an important role in human health. 

Pistachios have fewer calories than other nuts. 

Pistachio kernels are cholesterol-free, low in saturated fat, and help absorb vitamins A, E, D, and K. It is one of the best sources of vegetable protein, it has a lot of fiber Which helps digest food, regulates cholesterol and blood sugar. 

Pistachio is one of the best sources of potassium among nuts. 

The potassium of 1 pistachio is equal to the potassium of 1 orange. 

Surprising Facts About Pistachios

The potassium in pistachios helps balance body fluids, regulates heart rate and is very useful for lowering blood pressure

Pistachio contains phosphorus and participates in the construction of bones and teeth, prevents fatigue and weakness, and is useful for strengthening the muscles of the body. 

Pistachio kernels contain some magnesium

Magnesium is one of the most important minerals in converting food into energy, regulates heart rate and prevents muscle cramps. The iron in pistachios is good for dizziness, fatigue, paleness and anemia. 

Pistachios contain vitamins B1, B6 and E

Vitamin B6 helps with protein metabolism and is also involved in food absorption. Vitamin B1 increases energy, strengthens nerve cells and balances appetite. 

Among nuts, pistachios have the highest amount of antioxidants

Vitamin E is a group of antioxidants that play an important role in strengthening the immune system, eye health and preventing fatigue and stress, as well as preventing cell damage.[4] , 2007). 

Eating pistachios also strengthens sexual desire and strengthens the mind. 

Pistachio peel jam is useful for strengthening the stomach and nerves. Relieves liver pain, eliminates toxins from the body and jaundice.

strengthening the stomach and nerves and relieves liver pain

Due to the fact that the best type of pistachio in the world exists in Iran and our country is one of the largest producers and exporters of pistachios in the world. 

Pistachios are used in raw and fragrant form. 

In addition, its kernels are crushed and ground in the baking of many sweets and cakes, as well as used to decorate some mixed pilafs, such as sweet pilaf, masa pilaf, carrot pilaf, etc. Also, pistachios pounded on a razor are the main ingredients of the razor.

Pistachio oil

Pistachio oil is golden yellow or greenish yellow which contains 20% of the beneficial fatty acids obtained from pistachio kernel extract, which has many nutritional and therapeutic properties. 

This vegetable oil is used as a flavoring in foods, juices, soups and most salads. 

It can be mixed with vinegar and honey and creates a very pleasant taste. 

how to use pistachio oil in cocking

The most important vegetables are two vegetables, chicory and green beans, which get a good taste by combining and using this oil.

* Note that high heat will destroy the properties of pistachio oil.


Oil extraction

In general, depending on the type of use, there are two methods for extracting oil from pistachios.

Manual oil extraction

Manual pistachios oil extraction

To prepare this vegetable oil, pistachio kernels must be removed from the skin. 

Then, roast the pistachios with a gentle heat in a pan so that the pistachio kernels are slightly roasted, and after this step, the pistachio kernels are ground several times with the help of a grinder until they are completely crushed. 

At this stage, a very small amount of water must be added and ground again to form a dough. 

Finally, the resulting paste is placed in a clean cloth and by pressing on the cloth, pure pistachio oil is obtained.

Machine extraction of oil

In this method, after removing the shell, the whole kernel is crushed using a machine and then the oil is separated from the meal by creating pressure or press, which depending on the cultivar and quality of the kernel, about 40 to 50% of the oil is obtained.

In none of the above stages, heat plays a role so that the nutritional and medicinal properties of the oil are not lost.

Properties of pistachio oil

Pistachio kernel extract is a clear, yellow oil that has nutritional and therapeutic properties. 

Pistachio oil is rich in some vitamins, including A. D. E. K and contains very high amounts of minerals iron, phosphorus, copper, zinc and magnesium. 

This oil is rich in iron compared to other oils, which has doubled the importance of pistachio oil. The properties of pistachio oil are useful for people who suffer from iron deficiency or anemia. 

Another mineral in pistachio oil is phosphorus.

Due to the high amount of phosphorus in this oil, it strengthens intelligence and memory, and the folic acid in it helps the growth and development of the fetal nervous system. 

Copper is also another mineral that is recommended in the treatment of diarrhea in children. 

zinc in pistachio oil has an amazing effect in treating bone and joint pains and repairing them. 

One of the properties of pistachio oil is its fiber composition and high nutritional value. 

Pistachio oil is also used in cosmetics and traditional medicine. 

Another property of pistachio oil is to prevent wrinkles and also to keep the skin fresh and soft. 

You can use the properties of pistachio oil to strengthen the heart.

Pistachio oil is also effective for increasing memory and increasing appetite at different ages. 

regulates heart rate and helps better oxygenate cells. 

Pistachio oil is good for people with diabetes due to its low carbohydrate content, and because it is rich in plant phytosterols, it promotes heart health by lowering bad cholesterol. 

This vegetable oil is effective in preventing cancer due to its antioxidant properties. 

Also rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, it strengthens the immune system and helps produce hormone-like compounds involved in platelet aggregation,

vasoconstriction, allergic reactions, immunity and inflammation. Oral consumption of pistachio oil is effective in treating high blood pressure and has a special role in heart health in general.

Ingredients of fats

Building fatty acids

So far, more than seventy fatty acids have been isolated from various compounds, all of which have a long hydrocarbon chain with a terminal carboxyl agent. 

Some of them are saturated and some have one, two or three double bonds, and some have side branches in their chains.

The number of carbons in fatty acids, with a few exceptions, is always even and probably because they are easier to synthesize.

Properties of fatty acids

Separation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was done based on melting point because unsaturated fatty acids have a lower melting point than saturated fatty acids.

Also, the double bond in unsaturated fatty acids is higher between carbon 9 and 10, and this double bond is almost All natural unsaturated fatty acids are in the state of the geometric isomer Cis

Long-chain fatty acids are insoluble in water but soluble in alkali and form sodium soap or potassium soap.

Unsaturated fatty acids are easily oxidized. Acidification of fats is due to oxidation and the formation of acidic and aldehyde agents in fats (Jalili, 2008).

Application of pistachio oil in cosmetics industry

As a person ages, changes occur in the skin, such as a decrease in the elasticity and flexibility of the skin, a gradual decrease in the thickness of the skin, ie its thinning, and a gradual absorption and analysis of adipose tissue under the skin. Also due to the turn of humans to industrial life, which results in stress. 

Also, the use of non-standard foods (for example, fast foods and fatty foods) can lead to serious damage to the skin, including blemishes, pimples, wrinkles and a variety of skin allergies. 

To treat these cases, most people, especially women, try to use a variety of drugs and chemicals, which in most cases are the opposite of what is expected.


Skin lightening products, sold in the form of gels or lotions, contain compounds that disrupt the skin’s natural working mechanism. 

As the skin becomes weaker and thinner, this defense barrier loses its strength and becomes vulnerable to sunlight, cold and infections.

Sunscreens contain some chemicals that can irritate the skin, including redness, swelling, burning and itching. 

Some people have a severe allergic reaction that causes severe rash and itching. 

An allergic reaction to sunscreens can be caused by chemicals in the creams, such as preservatives. 

A substance called PABA or aminobenzoic acid is used in many sunscreens and can cause many allergic reactions.

Also, leaking sunscreen into the eye can cause a burning sensation. 

Some claim that sunscreens can even cause blindness. 

Sunscreen contains ingredients that have estrogenic effects on breast cancer cells.

Bleaching creams contain a chemical called hydroquinone.

This chemical prevents the production of melanin pigment in human skin and as a result, the skin color turns white. But it has many negative effects.

This substance irritates the skin and makes its outer cortex very thin. 

For this reason, long-term use of such creams can lead to wrinkles, inflammation, infection, sores and itching. In addition, most of these products are corticosteroids and if taken spontaneously, they can cause hypertension, kidney failure, diabetes, menstrual irregularities in women and joint and bone problems.

For this reason, the production of anti-dull creams is banned in the European Union due to its carcinogenicity, while in many different countries, there are many men and women who use anti-dull creams to lighten their skin, but this trend has led to Reasons for harmfulness have now ceased in many developed countries, such as EU members. 

In fact, in these countries, companies that produce cosmetics and health goods are banned from producing, distributing and distributing anti-glare creams.

According to UN statistics, the use of anti-dandruff creams is very high in African countries such as Nigeria and some Asian countries such as Malaysia, Korea and India and Arab countries. 

For example, about 80% of women in Malaysia use these creams.

Research by health centers around the world and various research institutes has one thing in common, and that is a chemical called hydroquinola. 

This material has many applications in industry and is used in radiology and photography industries for the emergence of photography.

The effect of hydroquinone on the body is that this chemical prevents the production of pigment (melanin pigment in human skin and as a result, the skin turns white. This substance, however, has many negative side effects.

Earlier, German dermatologist Rhinehold was quoted as saying by sources that Hydroquinone had a detrimental effect on the skin and body:

“It irritates the skin and makes the outer cortex very thin, so long-term use of this species.” Worms can cause wrinkles, inflammation, infection, sores and itching. However, many skin whitening creams containing hydroquinone are now sold in online pharmacies in various countries around the world.

screen is needed to prevent damage from the sun’s ultraviolet rays, but prolonged exposure can cause damage, including permanent aging of the skin.

Sunscreen protects the skin against short-term effects such as sunburn, and by preventing acute sunburn, it prevents long-term effects of the sun, such as skin cancer, but does not delay premature aging.

In addition, due to the fact that sun exposure is one of the main causes of skin cancers, which is one of the most common cancers in the ages of 25 and 29, but excessive use of sunscreens and exfoliators also reduce the thickness and resistance of the skin to external stimuli. .

Experts believe that sunscreens should be used frequently to prevent skin contact with the sun between 10am and 4pm, the hours when the sun’s rays are strongest.

According to this report, ultraviolet rays even pass through the clouds and are reflected by sand, water, snow and even concrete; Therefore, clouds and air pollution do not filter light and it is better not to be exposed to direct sunlight as much as possible.

Scientists also believe that sunburn can change the body’s immunity for 24 hours after sun exposure. So be more careful with children, but be careful when using chemical creams for them.

Side effects of using sunscreen

1- Allergic reactions

2- Sunscreens can make acne worse

2- Itching and burning in the eyes

4- Increased risk of breast cancer

5- Pain in hairy areas of the body

6 – causing pain and itching in the area of ​​the hair follicle

Skin color is genetic. In Europe, skin color is usually light, in the Middle East, and in Africa, dark. 

The more sun there is in an area, the more active the melanocytes are, and as a result, the skin color of the people in that area is darker.

According to a report by German researchers based on the experience of people in African countries, skin lightening creams are carcinogenic due to the specific chemicals they contain.

German scientists are emphasizing the practical experience of the African people and the research done: “The best anti-dull cream is obtained from plants.”

The researchers argue that black women in South Africa use completely natural methods to prevent their skin from darkening. 

In South Africa, for example, men and women who work in fields or mines in bright sunlight rub rose petals on their faces.

In this way, these people both maintain their beauty and prevent damage to their skin. 

A recent study by the University of Limpopo in South Africa on the effects of rose and its extract on facial skin shows that in addition to improving skin health, these substances do not have side and negative side effects on the skin, and its gradual use even leads to lightening the skin .

Today, chemical drugs are used to beautify and prevent premature aging of facial and body skin and hair growth, etc., and to treat them, and due to the side effects of some of these drugs, human attention in the present age to medicinal plants and their products. It gets more and more up to date.

As mentioned above, there are several side effects of sunscreens. 

The best way to eliminate such a problem is to use natural products that are free of chemicals. 

Among them, pistachio and rosemary, which are perhaps the most important plants, so because of their importance and properties can be used in the field of cosmetics.

Despite the many properties of pistachio oil, many people do not know this oil inside and outside and its benefits are fully known.

Pistachio kernels do not have so many fatty acids, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron and vitamins and antioxidants. 

Pistachio oil is rich in some unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins such as A, E and has very high amounts of minerals. This oil is rich in antioxidants compared to other oils, which makes pistachio oil doubly important. 

Therefore, by separating this composition and processing it and combining it with rosemary extract, it can be a completely natural cosmetic product and an alternative to cosmetic chemical compounds.

Research by health centers around the world and various research institutes on the use of chemical creams have one thing in common, and that is a chemical called hydroquinone. 

This material has many applications in industry and is used in radiology and photography industries for the emergence of photography. 

The effect that hydroquinone has on the body is that this chemical prevents the production of the pigment (pigment) of melanin in human skin, and as a result, the skin turns white. This substance, however, has many negative side effects.

According to Rhinehold, a German dermatologist, the destructive effect of hydroquinone on the skin and body is reported:

This substance irritates the skin and makes its outer cortex extremely thin, so the long-term use of this species can cause wrinkles, inflammation, infection, sores and itching. 

Many skin whitening creams containing hydroquinone are now sold in online pharmacies around the world.

One of the most important concerns of humanity today is to achieve methods of rejuvenation and rejuvenation and maintenance, and not a day goes by that dermatologists do not encounter patients whose main reason for visiting is receiving medication to improve the condition of the skin of the face, neck or hands to have skin.

Not younger and less wrinkled

With the advancement of science and technology, there are many ways today to achieve skin rejuvenation; From creams containing stem cells and skin rejuvenation to state-of-the-art plastic surgery methods, everyone is trying to rejuvenate a person’s skin, despite the age of the ID card. 

Dermatologists believe that up to 90% of skin aging is caused by external factors. Pollution, stress, smoking, alcohol and UV rays all produce free radicals, which are the main enemy of the skin. 

Free radicals attack the skin in a process called oxidation. 

The body has its own antioxidant defense system to help neutralize free radical damage. 

But as we get older, the efficiency of this system decreases and our need for extra antioxidants increases. 

Over time, the essential support structure of the skin begins to disintegrate. 

Collagen fibers join together, elastin loses its elasticity, and this causes fine lines and wrinkles to form on the surface of the skin. 

The dermis gradually loses its density, and as the skin becomes thinner, blood vessels become visible. 

The skin is part of the body’s covering system. Other parts of this device are hair, nails and mucous membranes. 

About 30,000 of these cells fall out per minute.

However, living skin cells are constantly produced in the lower part of the skin to replace these cells. Below the skin is the dermis, which contains blood vessels, nerve endings, and glands. 

A layer of fat is placed under the dermis and acts as an insulator, shock absorber and energy source. During the life of a 70-year-old, every human body sheds an average of about 47.5 kg of skin, and every month the whole skin of each person is changed and renewed. 

Our skin reacts to our lifestyle, for example, the skin of a gardener’s hands thickens to provide more protection. During the aging process, the skin shrinks and its elasticity decreases, which can be accelerated as a result of excessive exposure to sunlight. 

Also, the skin can change its color. In direct sunlight, the epidermis and dermis produce more melanin, a pigment that filters out harmful ultraviolet radiation. 

Increased melanin darkens the skin. People who originally belong to areas with intense sunlight have darker skin that does not burn light skin easily. 

People with fair skin are more sensitive to sunburn because they have less melanin in their skin. The skin is constantly renewing itself by shedding dead cells and producing new cells. 

As a result, superficial cells that are lost due to wear, damage or disease are quickly replaced. 

New cells are made in the epidermis, which is the top layer of the skin and acts as a thick protective coating.

Today, we are always facing many problems in the country’s industry, and our country’s capable specialists and designers have been able to eradicate these problems to a great extent by designing new and widely used products.

Properties of pistachio green skin

Pistachio shell is generally the kernel and has a lot in common with the fruit, and what is known as the shell is actually the fruit itself. 

So there is a lot of nutritional value in the shell, just like the brain.

Fresh antioxidants are high in antioxidants and nutrients that can increase cellular metabolism. 

The green skin of fresh pistachios is cold and dry according to ancient Iranian medicine and has the following properties:

1- Used for dyeing.

2- It is the best medicine to eliminate bad breath.

3- Chewing it heals wounds in the mouth.

4- To strengthen the gums, rub it on the gums or chew.

5- Brewing pistachio green skin eliminates heartburn and vomiting.

7. It is useful for relieving diarrhea.

8. To relieve hiccups, brew green pistachio skin and drink a little of it.

9- Decoction of pistachio bark is useful for relieving itching of female genitals.

10- Decoction of pistachio bark and leaves is useful for relieving anal pain and itching.


Pistachio kernels are hot and dry. 

Eating too much causes body heat and hives and red grains on the skin.

Consumption of large amounts of pistachios has side effects such as obesity, high blood pressure, intestinal, stomach and other diseases. 

Daily consumption of salted pistachios also increases the risk of high blood pressure; Because half a cup of salted pistachios increases sodium intake to 263 to 526 mg and leads to high blood pressure.

Pistachio kernels are high in fat and those with weak stomachs should eat apricots.

Problems and challenges of the country’s strategic Iranian pistachios crop against foreign competitors in the global market:

1- Farmers are not aware of commercial cultivars and their characteristics do not match the water, soil and climatic conditions of pistachio growing areas and the new target market (taste).

2- Lack of coordination between the number of pollinators and the mother bases, which according to studies is 8 in the United States but about 190 in Iran.

3- Lack of simultaneous pollination of parental bases

4- Non-uniformity of bases due to genetic differentiation

5- Failure to select a suitable base for the suitable climatic conditions of the cultivation area

6- Non-observance of nutrition principles

7- Failure to observe irrigation time

8- Failure to observe the appropriate harvest time

9- Failure to observe the principles of pest and disease control

10- Failure to observe proper plowing of tree bases

11- Failure to observe the correct principles of pruning

12- Lack of knowledge about diseases

13- Lack of knowledge and information necessary to use the principles of mechanization, etc. is an important and fundamental challenge in pistachio orchards in Iran.

14- Lack of knowledge of modern technologies for processing

15- Lack of necessary and timely support from the responsible institutions

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